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Understanding Ear Wax Issues: Prevalence, Impact, and Management

Ear wax, also known as cerumen, is a natural substance produced by the ear to clean and protect itself. However, excessive or impacted ear wax can cause significant discomfort and health issues. This article provides a comprehensive overview of ear wax problems, their prevalence, and effective management strategies.

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Prevalence of Ear Wax Issues

​Among Children

Ear wax problems are notably prevalent among children. A study in Nepal found that approximately 34.64% of children experience ear wax issues, which can sometimes lead to hearing impairment​ (WHO)​.

Among Adults

In the general adult population, about 3% of individuals present with ear wax problems annually. This translates to approximately 96,000 patient appointments each year in Wales alone​ (GOV.WALES)​. The prevalence increases significantly with age, with studies reporting that up to 34% of individuals over 65 years old have impacted ear wax​ (NICE)​.

Impact of Ear Wax Issues

Ear wax build-up can lead to various symptoms and complications, including:

  • Hearing Loss: Typically a decrease in hearing sensitivity (20-30dBHL) if the wax is occluding the ear canal.

  • Discomfort and Earache: Blocked ear sensation can cause significant discomfort.

  • Tinnitus: Ringing or buzzing in the ears is a common symptom.

  • Compounded Hearing Difficulties: For those with pre-existing hearing loss or hearing aids, ear wax can exacerbate problems by blocking the passage of amplified sound​ (GOV.WALES)​​ (NICE)​.

Management of Ear Wax

Self-Care Strategies

Self-management includes the use of softening agents such as olive oil, sodium chloride, or sodium bicarbonate drops to prevent and manage ear wax build-up​ (GOV.WALES)​.

Please Note: EARS Clinics do not recommend sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate drops as this can leave a residue within the ear canal, making wax removal more challenging.

Professional Removal Techniques

For quick and regular removal or more severe cases, professional removal is advised. Two common methods are:

  • Irrigation: Effective for many patients but comes with risks, especially with certain medical conditions.

  • Microsuction: Considered safer and more effective, especially when performed under direct vision. It is usually quicker and does not expose the ear canal to moisture.

  • Specialised tools such as forceps are used to manually remove ear wax under direct visualisation using an otoscope​

Importance of Professional Management

Effective treatment of ear wax issues not only addresses the physical symptoms but also has a positive impact on psychological and emotional health. It enhances communication and social functioning, particularly important for older adults who are more susceptible to these issues​ (GOV.WALES)​.


Ear wax problems are common across all age groups, particularly among children and older adults. Recognising the signs and seeking appropriate treatment can significantly improve quality of life. Whether through self-care or professional intervention, managing ear wax effectively is essential for maintaining ear health and overall well-being.


  1. BJGP Open - Microsuction Study​ (BJGP Open)​

  2. Ear Wax Management in Wales​ (GOV.WALES)​

  3. NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries​ (NICE)

  4. Nepal Study (WHO)

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